Study in Reduction of Vortex Drag at Low Cruising Aircraft Speeds

  • Mohamed B.W. Nabhan University of Bahrain, College of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, PO Box 32038, Isa Town, Kingdom of Bahrain
  • Ebrahim K. Seddiq University of Bahrain, College of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, PO Box 32038, Isa Town, Kingdom of Bahrain
Keywords: Induced drag, low flying aircraft, winglets, CFD

Abstract

Aerodynamic characteristics of plain wing designed for Light Sport Aircraft has been studied. The fluid characteristics include induced drag and lift to drag ratio. Then, winglets are added to reduce the induced drag and increase the lift to drag ratio which are affected by the wing tip vortices. The theoretical, and numerical approaches are used to verify the results. A rectangular untwisted 9.528 m wing spans with an Airfoil NACA 4412 was used for the basic design. Winglets are added with a tip airfoil of NACA 0012, side angle of 65o and new projected area of 10.328 m2. Lift and drag coefficients are used as means to measure the improvement of the aerodynamic characteristics. The wing tip vortices increase the induced drag and spoil the lift over the wing's surface. The winglets design main objectives are to decrease the induced drag, decrease fuel consumption, and increase flight safety, especially in take-off condition.

The wing with winglets model was simulated first using 3-D Fluent ANSYS version 14 at 50 m/s velocity and (0o, 5o, and 10o) angles of attack with laminar flow and standard atmospheric conditions at 15oC, and 101 kPa and all other flow parameters as well. The second verification method was to simulate the 3-D model using the 3-D Foil Multi-Surfaces code again with the same flow parameters. Finally, the last verification method was to solve the problem theoretically using the theoretical governing equations. The theoretical solutions were used as a base line for all other results. The total drag reduction observed from the calculations with winglets is about 7.4% during the takeoff regime using theoretical calculations, where the induced drag contributes about 77% of total drag of the plain wings. The lift to drag ratio improved also in our designed model wing with winglets by 14% from the plain wing design.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bento Mattos, Antonini Macedo, and Durval Silva Filho (2003). Consideration about winglet design, proceedings 21st Applied Aerodynamics Conference, Florida, U.S.A.
[2] I. Kroo L (2005), Nonplanar wing concepts for increased aircraft efficiency. VKI lecture series on innovative configurations and advanced concepts for future civil aircraft, pp.1-29.
[3] Hantrains-Gervois et al. (2009), Effect of gurney flaps and winglets of the performance of HAWT, chapter 6.
[4] Ning A., Kroo L (2010), Multi-disciplinary considerations in the design of wings and wing tip devices, Journal of aircraft, vol.47, pp.534-543.
[5] Jansen, Perez, and Ra Martins (2010), A python-based object-oriented frame work for non-linear constrained optimization, Journal of structural and multi-disciplinary optimization,vol.45, issue 1, pp.101-118.
[6] Nurulain, Y., Jamaluddin (2012), S. Flow behavior around winglets. Journal Mechanical, vol.34, pp. 95-100.
[7] Gimmestad, (1981). Technology reshaping aviation partners winglets, Aviation partners, internet website.
[8] Azlin M.A., Maltaib C.F., Kasolang S. (2010), and Muhammed F.H. CFD analysis of winglets at low subsonic flow, proceedings of the world congress on engineering, WCE, vol.1, pp.87-91.
[9] Takenaka K., Hatanaka, K., Yamazaki W., and Nakahashi K. (2008), Multidisciplinary design exploration for a winglet, Journal of aircraft, vol 45, 5, pp.1601-1611.
[10] Anderson, J. D. (2003), Fundamentals of Aerodynamics (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
[11] McCormick, Barens W. (1995), Aerodynamics Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics (2nd ed.). John Wiley & SONS, INC.
[12] Jones, R. Wing Theory (1990). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Published
2018-10-31
How to Cite
Nabhan, M., & Seddiq, E. K. (2018, October 31). Study in Reduction of Vortex Drag at Low Cruising Aircraft Speeds. Journal of Advance Research in Mechanical & Civil Engineering (ISSN: 2208-2379), 5(10), 01-19. Retrieved from https://jiaats.com/ojs31/index.php/mce/article/view/877